Hyderabad is the capital of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is located on the banks of the Musi River in the Deccan Plateau in southern India. The city's area is 650 square kilometres (250 sq mi) and hosts a population of 6.8 million, while the metropolitan area contains 7.75 million residents, making it India's fourth most populous city and the sixth most populous urban agglomeration. The city was expanded in 2007 to form the Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation. As a growing metropolitan city in a developing country, Hyderabad confronts substantial pollution and other logistical and socio-economic problems.
Hyderabad was established in 1591 CE by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah and remained under the rule of the Qutb Shahi dynasty until 1687 when Mughal emperor Aurangzeb conquered the sultanate, and the city became part of the Deccan province of the Mughal empire. In 1724 Asif Jah I, a Mughal viceroy, declared his sovereignty and formed the Asif Jahi dynasty—also known as the Nizams of Hyderabad. The Nizams ruled the princely state of Hyderabad for more than two centuries, under subsidiary alliance with the British Raj. The city remained the princely state's capital from 1769 to 1948—when the Nizam signed an Instrument of Accession with the Indian Union following the Operation Polo. The city became capital of Andhra Pradesh following the 1956 State Reorganisation Act. Since 1969, Hyderabad has been a major center of the Telangana movement, which demands a separate state for the Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh.
Situated at the crossroads of North and South India, Hyderabad is noted for its unique culture. As the former capital of the largest and richest princely state and with patronage from Nizams, Hyderabad established local traditions in art, literature, architecture and cuisine. The city is a tourist destination and has many places of interest, including the Chowmahalla Palace, Charminar and Golconda fort. Hyderabad is home to several museums, bazaars, galleries, libraries, sporting and other cultural institutions. The Telugu film industry is based in the city. From the 1990s Hyderabad emerged as a hub for the information technology, pharmaceuticals and biotechnology industries, alongside traditional and service industries. Hyderabad is a major centre for higher education and research and has 13 universities and business schools.